Sometime the burdens of life creep over you, consuming what little joy you had left.
- Methods and efficacy of social support interventions in preventing suicide: a systematic review and meta-analysisQuestion Suicide is a global public and mental health problem. The effectiveness of social support interventions has not been widely demonstrated in the prevention of suicide. We aimed to describe the methods of social support interventions in preventing suicide and examine the efficacy of them. Study selection and analysis We searched literature databases and conducted clinical trials. The inclusion criteria for the summary of intervention methods were as follows: (1) studies aimed at preventing suicide through method(s) that directly provide social support; (2) use of one or more method(s) to directly provide social support. The additional inclusion criteria for meta-analysis […]
- Prevalence of childhood mental disorders in high-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis to inform policymakingQuestion Mental disorders typically start in childhood and persist, causing high individual and collective burdens. To inform policymaking to address children’s mental health in high-income countries we aimed to identify updated data on disorder prevalence. Methods We identified epidemiological studies reporting mental disorder prevalence in representative samples of children aged 18 years or younger—including a range of disorders and ages and assessing impairment (searching January 1990 through February 2021). We extracted associated service-use data where studies assessed this. We conducted meta-analyses using a random effects logistic model (using R metafor package). Findings Fourteen studies in 11 countries met inclusion criteria, […]
- Background Compared with traditional screening questionnaires, computerised adaptive tests for severity of depression (CAT-DI) and computerised adaptive diagnostic modules for depression (CAD-MDD) show improved precision in screening for major depressive disorder. CAT measures have been tailored to perinatal women but have not been studied in low-income women of colour despite high rates of perinatal depression (PND). Objective This study aimed to examine the concordance between CAT and traditional measures of depression in a sample of primarily low-income black and Latina women. Methods In total, 373 women (49% black; 29% Latina) completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), CAD-MDD and CAT-DI at […]
- Metformin in the management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain in adults with psychosis: development of the first evidence-based guideline using GRADE methodologyBackground Adjunctive metformin is the most well-studied intervention in the pharmacological management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG). Although a relatively unaddressed area, among guidelines recommending consideration of metformin, prescribing information that would facilitate its applied use by clinicians, for example, provision of a dose titration schedule is absent. Moreover, recommendations differ regarding metformin’s place in the hierarchy of management options. Both represent significant barriers to the applied, evidence-based use of metformin for this indication. Objective To produce a guideline solely dedicated to the optimised use of metformin in AIWG management, using internationally endorsed guideline methodology. Methods A list of guideline […]
- Caesarean section and its relationship to offspring general cognitive ability: a registry-based cohort study of half a million young male adultsBackground A relationship between caesarean section and offspring cognitive ability has been described, but data are limited, and a large-scale study is needed. Objective To determine the relationship between mode of delivery and general cognitive ability. Methods A cohort of 579 244 singleton males, born between 1973 and 1987 who conscripted before 2006, were identified using the Swedish population-based registries. Their mode of delivery was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth registry. The outcome measure was a normalised general cognitive test battery (mean 100, SD 15) performed at military conscription at around age 18. Findings Males born by caesarean section […]
- Promoting inclusivity by ensuring that all patients with mental health issues are offered research opportunities in the NHSResearch-active clinical services have lower mortality rates and produce higher quality care outcomes, however, recruiting participants to clinical research in the National Health System (NHS) remains challenging.1 A recent study, assessing the feasibility of clinical staff electronically documenting patient consent to discuss research participation, indicated very low patient uptake, limiting its effectiveness as a strategy for improving access to research.2 A follow-on study comparing this ‘opt-in’ approach with an ‘opt-out’ approach, whereby patients are informed about research opportunities unless they indicate otherwise, found that patients and staff favoured an ‘opt-out’ approach and wanted research to be more accessible.3 Subsequently, in […]
- Objective The current practice in meta-analysis of the effects of psychopharmacological interventions ignors the administered dose or restricts the analysis in a dose range. This may introduce unnecessary uncertainty and heterogeneity. Methods have been developed to integrate the dose–effect models in meta-analysis. Methods We describe the two-stage and the one-stage models to conduct a dose–effect meta-analysis using common or random effects methods. We illustrate the methods on a dataset of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. The dataset comprises 60 randomised controlled trials. The dose–effect is measured on an odds ratio scale and is modelled using restricted cubic splines to detect […]